Stem cells are undifferentiated or unspecialized cells. The fact that they are undifferentiated means that these cells can develop into cells that serve numerous functions in different parts of the body. Most cells in the body are differentiated cells. These cells can only serve a specific purpose in a particular organ. For example, red blood cells serve specifically to carry oxygen through the blood.
All humans begin their life cycle as just a single cell. This cell is called a zygote or fertilized egg. The zygote divides into two cells, then four cells, and so on. Eventually, cells begin to specialize, taking on a specific function in a part of the body. This process is called differentiation.
Stem cells are cells that have not yet differentiated. They have the ability to divide and create an unlimited number of copies of themselves. Other cells in the body can only multiply a limited number of times before they start to fail. When a stem cell divides, it may remain as a stem cell or may develop into a differentiated cell such as a muscle cell or a red blood cell.
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