Medical Oncology

Medical Oncology

Medical oncology is a medical unit that works in coordination with branches such as surgery and radiation oncology for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients diagnosed with cancer.

A medical oncologist is an internal medicine specialist who specializes in tumor treatment.

The properties of drugs given intravenously or orally vary according to the cell type of the cancer, the organ where it started, and the area where it has spread. Medical oncology basically aims to;

  • The basic expectation is to be able to heal the patient with a full cure.
  • Neoadjuvant therapy to shrink the tumor and make it suitable for operation.
  • Adjuvant to reduce the risk of recurrence of the disease.
  • To prolong life in advanced disease
  • It consists of a palliative approach to cope with both the disease and the side effects of therapeutic drugs.

Treatment Approaches in Medical Oncology


Some of the chemotherapy drugs are drugs to destroy tumor cells (cytotoxic), some are drugs that prevent the development and proliferation of the tumor by affecting the biology of the tumor (cytostatic).

Drug selection, doses and frequency of administration is evaluated by a medical oncologist according to the tumor type, prevalence, age, general condition and other existing diseases.

Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, loss of appetite, hair loss, mouth sores, easy bruising, fever and similar conditions, which are the side effects of the drugs used, are followed up and treated by a medical oncologist.


Unlike chemotherapy, it aims to increase the body's defense against cancer with biological support instead of using chemical drugs. Immunotherapy sometimes acts on beneficial cells rather than cancer cells. In such cases, side effects of treatment occur.

Biological Therapy

Biological therapies, which are determined by identifying targets carried by cancer cells but not found in normal cells, are considered to be the most important development in cancer treatment in recent times. There are now biological agents approved by the FDA for use in many types of cancer

Medical Services


Leukemia is a type of cancer that occurs as a result of uncontrolled and excessive proliferation of white blood cells (lymphoid and myeloid series) produced in the bone marrow in the body. Cancer is the most common childhood cancer with 30 percent. However, it can also occur in adults older than 55 years. Leukemias are divided into 4 classes. These

  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
  • Chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL)

Diagnosis of the disease is done by tests such as the peripheral smear, bone marrow aspiration / bone marrow biopsy if necessary, flow cytometry, and genetic tests.

Treatment options include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy and stem cell transplant.

Today, the success of treatment of leukemias with full cure has reached approximately 85%.


It is a type of cancer caused by the uncontrolled proliferation of lymphocytes, which are the body's defense cells. The most common sites of lymph cancer are the lymph nodes.

Lymphomas are examined in two groups as Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin (non-Hodgkin). In order to determine the treatment options, it is necessary to determine the type of lymphoma.

The diagnosis is made by the patient's history, physical examination, blood tests, chest x-ray, computed tomography and biopsy.

Treatment of lymphoma varies according to the type of lymphoma, the stage of the disease, the rate of growth and spread, the age of the patient, and other health problems of the patient.

Chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies and radiotherapy can be used in the treatment. If the disease is resistant to treatment or develops again (relapse), treatment is in the form of stem cell or bone marrow transplantation.

Bone Cancer

They are malignant tumors that develop in the skeletal system and cause tissue destruction. The most common tumors of the bone are metastatic tumors and these are called secondary bone tumors. Examples of these are prostate, breast and lung cancers.

Tumors of the bone itself are examined in two groups as benign bone tumors and malignant bone tumors. The most common type of bone cancer in the bone is osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, respectively.

Diagnosis is made by X-ray, bone scintigraphy, CT, MRI and, if necessary, biopsy.

The preferred treatment method in bone cancer depends on factors such as the type of cancer of the bone, the location of the cancer in the bone, its grade, and the degree of invasion into surrounding tissues.

The preferred methods in the treatment of bone cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy.

Lung cancer

It is cancer that is formed by the uncontrolled proliferation of cells in the lung tissue. The mass formed in the lung firstly grows in its environment, then spreads to the surrounding tissues, and in later stages, to distant organs through the circulation and metastasizes. Smoking is one of the leading causes of death in both men and women, as smoking increases the incidence. Full cure and recovery can be achieved in its early stages.

Radiological imaging such as chest x-ray, CT, MRI, PET/CT, bronchoscopy and biopsy are used for its diagnosis.

The type and stage of the cancer play a role in determining the treatment in lung cancers. In the early stages, the lung or lung section where the cancer is located can be removed with surgical methods, but chemotherapy can be combined. Higher rates of chemotherapy can be applied in late stages of the disease.

New treatments such as monoclonal antibodies and immunotherapy may also be used for certain types of lung cancer.

Brain Tumors

This disease can be seen at any stage of life. They can be benign or malignant depending on the nature of the tissue in which the tumor occurs.

Glial tumors originating from the brain's own tissue are malignant tumors that are frequently seen in adulthood. Surgery, followed by radiotherapy, radiosurgery (Gamma Knife, CyberKnife) and chemotherapy protocols can be applied in the treatment. One of the most important parameters affecting survival is the effectiveness of surgery. This is closely related to surgical experience and clinical competence. 

Tumors originating from the membranes of the brain are generally benign and a complete cure is provided with an effective surgery.

Although there are many parameters that affect the prognosis (course) of the patient in metastatic (spread elsewhere) tumors, the prognosis is generally poor since another cancer spreads and tumor masses form in more than one place in the brain.

 In brain tumors, the area where the tumor occurs is as important as the tissue of the tumor. For example, the surgery of a superficial tumor can be performed more smoothly, while the surgery of a deeply located tumor and/or close to an important center in the brain may be more complicated. E.g; After the surgery of a tumor close to the motor area, the probability of waking up as paralyzed is higher than in other localized tumors.

Other types of Cancers treated in the Department of Medical Oncology
  • Kidney and Suprarenal Cancers
  • Skin cancers, Malignant Melanoma
  • Lip cancer and oral cavity cancers
  • Nasopharynx and Throat cancers
  • Chest wall tumors
  • Kaposi sarcoma
  • Cancers of the Liver, Gallbladder and Bile ducts
  • Carcinoid Syndrome
  • Mesothelioma
  • Mediastinal cysts and tumors
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Spinal cancers
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Thymoma
  • Thyroid and Parathyroid Gland Cancers